Pot Smoking and Developing Brains


Studies may lead to help for PTSD
as well as a greater understanding of addiction
and schizophrenia

© Madelyn Griffith-Haynie, CTP, CMC, ACT, MCC, SCAC
Foundational Concept of the Intentionality Series
Opinions vs. Facts

Reefer Madness?

Weed, Ganja, MaryJane, Cannabis, Pot, Hemp, Herb, Reefer

Some of my Senior readers may not recognize each of them, but practically any teen can tell you that they are all names for marijuana.

You know, that stuff you can roll into a joint that – except in jest – only the most out-of-it refer to as “a funny cigarette.”

The technical term for marijuana is cannabis – for a very good reason.  Since at least 1967, various chemical constituents of marijuana have been classified as cannabinoids.

They act on cannabinoid receptors in cells throughout our bodies, and alter neurotransmitter release in the brain – but they are NOT all the same.

One toke gets you higher and another makes you well?

THC [delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol or Delta-9-THC] is the primary psychoactive ingredient in marijuana – the stuff that gets you high – but it is not always the most abundant cannabinoid in marijuana.

Depending on the particular plant, cannabidiol can be the most abundant cannabinoid, which has many healing properties that you can read about on almost any Medical Marijuana site.

Cannabidiol is currently one of the most exciting of the 85+ known cannabinoids.

Also known as CBD, it is stepping out of the shadows and into the spotlight as a potentially breakthrough nutritional component and treatment.

It occurs naturally in significant quantities in cannabis, and it is extracted relatively easily from the seeds, stalk and flowers of cannabis plants – which include hemp as well as marijuana. (The main functional difference between hemp and marijuana is the level of THC.)

Receptor Sites and Binding

All recent studies have indicated that the behavioral effects of THC are receptor mediated. That means that neurons in the brain are activated when a compound binds to its receptor — a protein typically located on the surface of a particular cell “specialized” to, metaphorically, “speak its language.”

So THC gets you high only after binding to its receptor.  That, in turn, triggers a series of events in the cell that results in a change in the cell’s activity, its gene regulation, or the signals that it sends on to another cell.

Wikipedia – ©Creative Commons

Steven R. Laviolette and his team at Western University’s Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry discovered that directly activating cannabinoid receptors in a region of the brain called the amygdala, can strongly influence the significance of emotional information and memory processing.

PFC implications

Activating cannabinoid receptors also dramatically increased the activity patterns of neurons in a connected region of the brain called the prefrontal cortex [PFC].

That, in turn, controls how the brain perceives the emotional significance of sensory information, and the strength of the memories associated with these emotional experiences.

Regular readers may recall that the PFC has connections to, essentially, every other part of the brain.

It is the part of the cortex that allows us to regulate Executive Functions appropriately – items like planning, problem solving, concentration, mental flexibility, and controlling short-term behavior to achieve long-term goals.

The PFC is a major player for those of us with ADD and other Executive Function Disorders and dysregulations – including those with traumatic and acquired brain injuries [TBI/ABI].

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Dr. Laviolette’s interest is in figuring out how it all works

Laviolette is a professor in the departments of anatomy and cell biology, and psychiatry of Western University.

He and his team are exploring the brain-based mechanisms of emotionally related learning, both in single neurons and in specific brain circuits.

That has led them to explore how disturbances in these basic neural processes may lead to disorders like addiction as well as schizophrenia.

Their investigations into the neurobiology of addiction have focused on nicotine and opiates, both highly addictive substances that act on pathways in the brain that are also known to control reward, motivation and learning.

Addiction findings

His research group has identified specific regions in the brains of mammals that, following exposure to drugs of abuse, control the ‘switch’ from the non-addicted state to the addicted state.

Their research is ongoing, hoping to precisely identify and define the neurobiological mechanisms that control the addiction process at behavioral, molecular and single neuron levels of analysis.

Stay tuned for more about addiction.

Back to Cannabinoids

Dr. Laviolette’s research group has also focused on the roles of the endocannabinoid system and specific dopamine receptor populations in the processing of emotionally salient information.

  • Dopamine is a neurotransmitter long believed to be another major player in the ADD/EFD population.
  • Emotional salience is the term used in the study of perception and cognition to refer to any aspect of a stimulus that is, for any reason, prominent or conspicuous.

Their ongoing research seeks to examine how disturbances in these brain receptor substrates may underlie the distorted sensory processing and emotional associative learning frequently seen in schizophrenics.

THC and teens

One of their studies, published in the January 2016 issue of Cerebral Cortex, showed that the key psychoactive component of marijuana harms adolescent rats, producing changes similar to what is found in schizophrenia.

Adolescent rodents given THC were socially withdrawn and had increased anxiety, elevated levels of dopamine and an inability to filter out unnecessary information, all factors in schizophrenia. Changes persisted into adulthood.

“Adolescence is a critical period of brain development and the adolescent brain is particularly vulnerable,” says Laviolette.

“These findings are of great clinical relevance given recent evidence suggesting that exposure to marijuana during adolescence can increase the likelihood of developing schizophrenia later in life,” he postulates.

He goes on to say, “We know there are abnormalities in both the amygdala and prefrontal cortex in patients who have , and we now know these same brain areas are critical to the effects of marijuana and other cannabinoid drugs on emotional processing.”

In addition, the findings by Laviolette’s lab identify a novel brain pathway by which the drugs acting on the cannabinoid system can distort the emotional relevance of incoming sensory information, which may lead to psychotic side-effects like paranoia, also associated with heavy use.

Developing additional pharmaceutical compounds that block or modify this pathway could help control psychotic episodes.

The study findings could also be used to develop ways to help patients with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder [PTSD] who experience flashbacks – difficulty controlling the continual reappearance of highly emotional events in their memories.

Medical Marijuana that’s Different

I want to underscore the reality that none of the research on THC is likely to have anything to say about Medical Marijuana which is developed and grown to be abundant in CBD – cannabidiol.

Don’t confuse these two cannabinoids –
and don’t rely on information from sites or studies that lump them all together.

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About Madelyn Griffith-Haynie, MCC, SCAC
Award-winning ADD Coach Training Field founder; ADD Coaching field co-founder; [life] Coaching pioneer -- Neurodiversity Advocate, Coach, Mentor & Poster Girl -- Multi-Certified -- 25 years working with Executive Functioning struggles in hundreds of people from all walks of life. I developed and delivered the world's first ADD-specific coach training curriculum: multi-year, brain-based, and ICF Certification tracked. In addition to my expertise in ADD/EF Systems Development Coaching, I am known for training and mentoring globally well-informed ADD Coach LEADERS with the vision to innovate, many of the most visible, knowledgeable and successful ADD Coaches in the field today (several of whom now deliver highly visible ADD coach trainings themselves). For almost a decade, I personally sponsored and facilitated seven monthly, virtual and global, no-charge support and information groups The ADD Hours™ - including The ADD Expert Speakers Series, hosting well-known ADD Professionals who were generous with their information and expertise, joining me in my belief that "It takes a village to educate a world." I am committed to being a thorn in the side of ADD-ignorance in service of changing the way neurodiversity is thought about and treated - seeing "a world that works for everyone" in my lifetime. Get in touch when you're ready to have a life that works BECAUSE of who you are, building on strengths to step off that frustrating treadmill "when 'wanting to' just doesn't get it DONE!"

130 Responses to Pot Smoking and Developing Brains

  1. rgayer55 says:

    I always thought they made too big a deal over pot. The tired excuse of calling it a “gateway drug” was one example. Now that many states are enjoying the tax revenue benefits, I suspect we’ll soon see it legalized in more states, and hopefully decriminalized at the Federal level.

    Liked by 1 person

    • Yeah – follow the money. Always. Whatever it takes, I’m for legalization – especially of medical marijuana. And more testing.

      The list of health challenges helped by CBD grows longer monthly – quite amazing, actually. BUT, since current laws prohibit most quantitative studies, limited to statistics gathering in many cases, much of the evidence has been dismissed as “merely anecdotal.”

      The statistics making the correlation between lowered narcotics use for pain management when marijuana is added to the treatment protocol are impressive all by themselves. I truly do NOT understand why it is not already approved for chronic pain patients. Intractable ignorance or deliberate cruelty?

      Proponents make an excellent point when they point out likely corruption or cronyism that smoking a joint is illegal, but taking a pill where essential elements have been extracted, etc. that can be marketed and sold is legal. Say WHAT?!

      I’m with you in my hope that Federal decriminalization will happen SOON. Thank you so much for reading and ringing in.
      xx,
      mgh

      Liked by 1 person

  2. newsspellcom says:

    Thank you for your interest n Newsspellcom.org, Medelyn. Very well to observe another blog on the internet espousing thought provoking alternatives in opposition to that which the majority have been socially conditioned.

    Liked by 1 person

    • Since I am determined that my own blog posts remain focused primarily on Mental Health concerns, except for political decisions that impact neurodiversity or mental health I avoid politics for the most part. It’s getting more difficult every day, however, not to ring in with censure on a LOT of what this administration is considering and doing.

      I am a confirmed & unapologetic Progressive who fact checks – as it seems you are as well. I’ll be back.

      I read other blogs to keep my finger on the pulse. Other than brain damage statistics and reports from my neuro-buddies, I know little about the NFL, nor am I particularly sports minded, but I enjoyed your most recent post. Not surprised at all by any corruption that comes out about ANY corporation anymore.

      Thanks for checking out a post on ADDandSoMuchMORE.com
      xx,
      mgh

      Liked by 1 person

  3. Wow! People, especially teens need to read this informative post! Thanks for posting!

    Liked by 1 person

    • Thanks for reading and taking the time to comment, Oristel. I hope everyone will look at the emerging information before ringing in with their opinions on the subject.
      xx,
      mgh

      Liked by 1 person

      • 🙈 You are welcome Madelyn!

        Liked by 1 person

  4. Reblogged this on Kate McClelland.

    Like

    • This reblog is GREAT, Kate – Congress just put forward a bill to look at changing the marijuana laws – that currently make testing and prescribing illegal, should they choose to prosecute — returning legal control to the states.

      I want to do what I can to help people understand why (beyond politics and money, that is). I truly appreciate your help – but then I always say that, because I always DO!
      xx,
      mgh

      Liked by 1 person

  5. bethbyrnes says:

    I think it is useful to distinguish between recreational and medical use of any drug. Naturally, it would be better to prescribe marijuana than opioids.

    In general, I don’t like drugs in any form. Inhaling anything but fresh air is something I scrupulously avoid.

    But for people with psychological spectrum disorders or syndromes, or those who are in pain, some drugs carefully chosen and administered are probably the thing that keeps them from going “over the edge”, so who would I be to judge them for using?

    Good article!

    Liked by 1 person

    • Thanks Beth. Timely, since a bill was just introduced in Congress to change scheduling for marijuana (currently Schedule I as with heroin – which makes it illegal to prescribe, even – or test).

      So many states are now ignoring federal law in favor of their own, I think the govt. doesn’t want the hassle (or expense) of going after them in court. So they are thinking of legally returning control to the States. Good idea, IMHO, if only to open up funding for more research.
      xx,
      mgh

      Liked by 1 person

      • bethbyrnes says:

        We can only wait and see what this administration does about that, as they do nothing in a conventional or reasonable way.

        Liked by 1 person

        • Maybe they utilize an old kid’s toy – the Magic 8 Ball. Or dice. Their actions certainly seem unpredictable according to any rules of logic.
          xx,
          mgh

          Liked by 1 person

          • bethbyrnes says:

            They do what gives very powerful and wealthy people more wealth and power. That is their litmus test as far as I can see.

            Like

            • I wish I could disagree, Beth, but I cannot.

              Mammon worshippers rarely consider much beyond that which will increase their own personal wealth – and the increased power to make sure they can continue to ride roughshod over the lives of anyone who might be in need of a bit a financial help. Hateful times.
              xx,
              mgh

              Liked by 1 person

  6. daisymae2017 says:

    Reblogged this on COUNTRY LIVING and commented:
    Interesting. Shared this on LinkedIn.

    Liked by 1 person

    • Thank you so much for the reblog. More to know and more to come (eventually!), so I really appreciate your help getting the word out.

      Especially now, when there’s talk about reducing the Classification. It’s now Schedule I – *supposedly* reserved for substances with a high potential for abuse/ no currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States (heroin, for example), with stiffest penalties, even for doctors who use them medicinally, btw! States have been overriding, but if the administration wanted to get ugly they have the law on their side.

      Currently, ALL cannabinoids are Schedule I substances – which is clearly not true for CBD and may not be so for THC either. LONG political history as to why, and I believe it is a crying shame it has held up research on medical usages considerably while many of those with chronic pain, PTSD, trauma, anxiety disorders, nausea, vertigo, migraines and more could have been helped – legally, instead of forcing them to choose between breaking the law or agony.
      So THANKS!

      Lowering its classification, btw, would allow states more latitude to set their own laws on usage. More at link below:
      Landmark Bill Introduced In Congress Would Legalize Cannabis On Federal Level
      xx,
      mgh

      Like

  7. A very informative post. Good to know all this stuff although I have never really had any contact with this drug in any shape or form. They call it Dagga in SA and some of the teens used to eat it on foods.

    Liked by 1 person

    • Cannibis is metabolized slightly differently when ingested – and pot and hash brownies are alive and well in the USA (even in older folks).

      In Oregon, where it is legal (tho’ still open to Federal challenge under the current laws), you can buy baked goods with pot as an ingredient – for folks who can’t tolerate smoking it.

      The point I continue to make is that more research is unlikely as long as it remains illegal – especially when it is classified Schedule I and carries stiff legal penalties, even for doctors.

      America may be lowering its classification, which will allow more states the latitude to set their own laws on usage. More at link below:
      Landmark Bill Introduced In Congress Would Legalize Cannabis On Federal Level
      xx,
      mgh

      Liked by 1 person

      • Thank you for this further information. Strangely, I went to a children’s birthday party yesterday afternoon and this very topic came up. I was pleased to be a bit informed after reading you post.

        Liked by 1 person

        • Good to hear, Robbie. I think all parents are concerned – as is appropriate. And there is so much misinformation out there. Even the studies on which I reported aren’t conclusive – but I still think its good to know what’s likely to be coming.
          xx,
          mgh

          Liked by 1 person

  8. Pingback: Smorgasbord Blogger Daily – 10th March 2017 – Madelyn Griffith-Haynie, Kevin Morris, Jessica Norrie, Pamela Wight and Nicholas Rossis | Smorgasbord – Variety is the spice of life

    • Thanks for featuring this post, Sally. I so appreciate your help getting the info out to more people.
      xx,
      mgh

      Like

  9. dgkaye says:

    Great lowdown on the grading of marijuana, medically and otherwise. A friend of mine has a medical prescription for it ad told me the cannibidoil products she can buy don’t get you high because there’s no THC, she said more of a body calm effect and she can move her aching knees without pain when she takes it. 🙂 xo

    Liked by 1 person

    • There are so MANY anecdotal reports of similar experiences with both THC and CBD. Hundreds of thousands, actually.

      The problem is that, until it is legalized, there is no incentive for the pharmaceuticals to get involved, so funding for studies remains tough to come by. Catch 22 – no studies, not legal – not legal, too few studies.

      xx,
      mgh

      Liked by 1 person

      • dgkaye says:

        I hear you. But it is legal in many states and now in my province. But case in point, the FDA makes the decisions on what’s legal, what’s dangerous, etc. and sometimes they don’t even have all the facts, yet what they deem as safe or ‘dangerous side-effects’ is what becomes the law. Medical marijuana is legal now in my city, and recreational marijuana is on the table now to legalize, although the police are already warning people they are thinking up ways to stop drivers and test them to see if if they’ve been toking, to charge them same as drunk drivers. These are things that must have more research done as I believe they are comparing apples and oranges. Don’t get me started. 🙂 ❤

        Like

        • Sadly, Debby, the FDA *rarely* has all the facts before they ring in (and it’s not really a stretch to say the politicians NEVER do – and political concerns trump ethical ones FAR too often). They cite the loudest voices, ignoring research that counters those points – sometimes even subverting it (aspartame, GMOs anyone?). It’s been a broken, follow the money organization for some time, and not likely to get better with this administration in charge.

          You are certainly right that things are slowly changing where MJ laws are concerned. Still, I’m sure I spend more time on the blogs of the Mental Health and chronic illness communities ’round the globe than you do, so I know that there are WAY too many folks who cannot obtain symptom and pain relief legally – and not just with marijuana, btw.

          The “war on drugs” here in America has turned out to be a war on mental health sufferers, and I’m not sure the addiction statistics have changed all that much. They certainly have not changed enough to warrant the damage that those laws inflict in the lives of those who can’t get the medication they need because doctors are afraid of tripping a DEA audit (or believe the FDA blather, unaware of the science, to frame it more kindly) – or the outright cruelty to those who must find some way to live with chronic pain.

          There is much still to be considered where marijuana legalization is concerned, of course. BUT, how much consideration (or testing) happened before alcohol was legalized following Prohibition, and all research indicates that drinking is a FAR greater problem than smoking (on many levels). Closing the door on MJ for that reason alone is short-sighted.

          I agree that driving impaired – whether drunk or stoned – must be able to be tested, but random stop and test roadblocks are certainly not the answer. AND, just because we have no studies to show safe driving/impaired driving levels (as with alcohol) is a lousy reason to hold up approval for medical marijuana. It will probably be many years before the truth comes out about safety.

          There are still laws on the books that it is illegal to drive with ADD medication in your system, for heaven’s sake – when almost all parents of ADD teens will tell you that you REALLY don’t want them driving unless they ARE medicated, with the few studies conducted all backing up that assertion.

          Switching topics – I made time to pay a visit to your blog before I headed off to bed last “nite” – great review of your memoir, and loved reading about your trip — it looked WONDERFUL! More to come?
          xx,
          mgh

          Liked by 1 person

          • dgkaye says:

            Love your oped Madelyn. You are absolutely correct on all fronts. And although I didn’t get into as much detail as you, I know well that government restrictions are all ruled by the big guys and many drugs that are passed and/or vetoed are still not properly assessed. It’s truly a sad world when it’s all about the almighty dollar and not about the health of the people. 😦 ❤ (I'm in beautiful AZ, so again, I'm busy as a bee or relaxing at the pool, lol. Oh yes, more will be coming on my blog. ❤ xoxo

            Liked by 1 person

            • Thanks, Debby. As I said in response to a chronic pain/rare disease (and more) blogger: I wish all legislators (and the DEA) could be “gifted” with the struggles that others must endure – and for a solid month. EVERYTHING would change after that, I’m sure.

              I hope the balance is tipped more to the time around the pool – and I will look forward to more sharing of your vacation.
              xx,
              mgh

              Liked by 1 person

            • dgkaye says:

              So true, unfortunately, they’ll never understand until they wear the shoes for awhile! And thanks for keeping tabs on my blog posts, glad to have you visit, even while I’m away, lol 🙂 ❤

              Like

            • My pleasure, Debby – truly.
              xx,
              mgh

              Liked by 1 person

  10. Wendy says:

    Good post Madelyn. I use cannibus for medical reasons. It stops me from throwing up during a vertigo attack, it can also stop an attack if caught fast enough. I use the oil to help me sleep. I use it for my migraines too. Sounds like I use alot, but I don’t. Not every day. And I use the least I can. I can only get it with THC….don’t ask what state I live in….so I use just enough to help. I don’t like feeling high.

    Big thing for me, I’ve been in the hospital twice for dehydration because I couldn’t stop throwing up. Now I rarely throw up during an attack. I can’t take opioids or NSAIDS so this is the best option for me.

    I’m glad you wrote about it so well. Great research. Good information.
    (I tried it as a teen, but thankfully I never did a lot.)

    Liked by 1 person

    • lol- I think many of us tried a lot of things as teens we wouldn’t do now, Wendy. That is probably a big reason why so many of the older generation are against legalization. BUT, I believe that until more legal channels are open for development, CBD and other forms of medical marijuana will continue to be impossible to obtain for most candidates. Tell me why that makes ANY kind of sense?!

      We only have to look to prohibition to see that making something illegal rarely stops anybody – and certainly not the young! Most have fake IDs to be able to skirt the liquor laws in place as it is As long as it is possible to GROW marijuana, arresting kids for usage stops nothing and ruins entire lives. STUPID.

      Meanwhile, many people who are suffering needlessly are reduced to breaking the law to relieve their symptoms – and few of them smoke to get high. Many, like you, don’t even like the feeling – it’s more like a side-effect they believe they must tolerate to get the relief. HATEFUL!

      I’ve never been a fan of Big Brother laws in anyway, but in this case it’s not only illogical, it’s NUTS — and cruel. I could strangle the many in my generation who didn’t bother to go to the polls when we had the numbers and the eagerness to see it legalized.

      I’m glad you’ve found something that works for the nausea. Chemo patients report the same thing – over and over and over. Too few listen – and fewer still bother to research. I hope this article opens at least a few minds that might otherwise have remained closed. Thanks for reading – and taking the time to ring in.
      xx,
      mgh

      Liked by 1 person

      • Wendy says:

        I agree with everything you said!!
        I hate I have to get it the way I do, but it has saved me from going to the ER on more than one occasion.
        There’s a new bill coming up soon for my State, but I doubt it will pass. Gah!
        xo

        Liked by 1 person

        • Don’t get me started – I wish all legislators (and the DEA) could be “gifted” with the struggles that others must endure – and for a solid month. EVERYTHING would change after that, I’m sure.
          xx,
          mgh

          Liked by 1 person

          • Wendy says:

            I’m sure it would.
            Normally I’d never wish for anyone to have my illnesses, but I have a special exception for those people. Just for a little bit.
            One vertigo attack that last for hours, they’d change their minds.

            Liked by 1 person

            • I’m not sure about ONE attack, but a month of walking in the shoes of the people they judge might do the trick.

              I don’t generally wish others ill either – but a few empathy lessons sent their way always seem tempting. (Probably a good thing I have no power to send them). Too bad there’s not an empathy pill!
              xx,
              mgh

              Liked by 1 person

            • Wendy says:

              Let them have vertigo for a few days, and they would do anything to stop it and the vomiting.
              Thank you for coming back to comment.

              Liked by 1 person

            • You are always on my mind, Wendy – I just don’t always have the time in my days to comment when you post — even to read on some days, as much as I wish it were otherwise.
              xx,
              mgh

              Liked by 1 person

            • Wendy says:

              It’s okay Madelyn. I often can’t gat to blogs, and I haven’t written much recently.
              Thank you again for talon the time to come by.
              xo

              Liked by 1 person

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  12. mistermuse says:

    I have never been a pot smoker (or smoker of any kind, for that matter), so I have no personal stake in this issue. As a ‘disinterested’ observer, I fail to see why anyone would object to medicinal marijuana. Moral reasons? Where’s the morality in not having empathy for the suffering of a fellow human being?

    Liked by 1 person

    • I am 100% in your corner on this one. I have no need of it currently (and am highly unlikely to use ANY substance that might make my fuzzy brain fuzzier) – but if I ever did need it as medicine, I certainly want it to be legal and can’t understand all the push-back!!

      Thanks so much for ringing in.
      xx,
      mgh

      Liked by 1 person

  13. This is such a vitally important topic right now – thank you for raising the issue and bringing up relevant research. There is a lot more that has to be explored and discovered, though.

    Liked by 1 person

    • Always more that has to be explored and discovered. My objective is to keep people looking to the research (taking it all with a shaker of salt, but better than popping off uniformed). Thanks for reading and commenting. And congrats again on your most prestigious award.
      xx,
      mgh

      Liked by 1 person

      • You are definitely reaching your objective! Thank you again!

        Liked by 1 person

        • You’re a sweetie. I worry that those who need the info most won’t read it (if they read at all, that is). ::evil grin::
          xx,
          mgh

          Liked by 1 person

          • That is practically a certainty, unfortunately. And unfortunately, as it is now spring break, you walk on Ocean Drive, and you can literally cut weed smoke with a knife – it is so thick! I really don’t think any of it is the so-called “medical marijuana,” but it’s free for all now, and nobody has the right to say Boo to them.

            Liked by 1 person

            • As the pendulum swings . . .

              Liked by 1 person

            • I wasn’t there when it was swinging in this direction… I can appreciate “the doors to perception,” and I idolize Jim Morrison, but this troubles me.

              Liked by 1 person

            • Much about our world today troubles me — and I am troubled most of all by the millions who seem to think that everything will be just hunky dory if they ignore the unpleasant, justifying their lack of action as “wait and see.”

              I don’t have that much faith in ANY politician – I can at least make my expectations known by writing them, and make it a point to learn about and participate in boycotts (not marches etc., however – PTSD triggers for me).
              xx,
              mgh

              Liked by 2 people

            • We all try to do our share.

              Liked by 1 person

            • Many of us do – many still do not – or so it seems as I make the rounds and read the comments.
              xx,
              mgh

              Liked by 1 person

            • Not everyone has strong convictions, and even those who do, are not always ready to act on them, and they are not to be blamed. People are only people!

              Liked by 1 person

            • True – and then there is what was allowed to happen in Germany.
              xx,
              mgh

              Liked by 1 person

            • You are preaching to the choir, darling! I was risking my life for the cause since I was 16. But not all people are fighters; in fact, very few…

              Liked by 1 person

            • Thank you. I don’t know how I would have reacted in times like those, but with my big mouth, I probably wouldn’t be alive to tell it if I had been around.
              xx,
              mgh

              Liked by 2 people

            • You would’ve been trained and disciplined from childhood, the way we were.

              Liked by 1 person

            • Given that, it’s surprising that anyone resisted.
              xx,
              mgh

              Liked by 1 person

            • Very few did, that’s true.

              Liked by 1 person

            • And the world must remain aware – and grateful to those individuals who spoke out in defense of others.
              xx,
              mgh

              Liked by 1 person

            • I am not sure I agree, for two reasons First of all, I believe in the old maxim: those who talk, don’t do, and those who do, don’t talk. Secondly, the world mostly doesn’t care, with the exception of very few who do care, and they quietly do what needs to be done.

              Liked by 1 person

            • I’m not convinced that maxim is an absolute. While there are certainly those who quietly go about doing what needs to be done, G-d bless ’em, there is something to be said for those who inspire others with their words – and many of them are advocates who also DO. Women would probably never have gotten the vote without the words and actions suffragetttes, for example.
              xx,
              mgh

              Like

            • Nothing is an absolute. We are not perfect, only He is! It is probably my Russian background that makes me discount words of inspiration. Going with your example, the suffragettes DID, and did quite aggressively.

              Liked by 1 person

            • Have I ever mentioned that I was born at the now closed Fort Ord military base (Monterey, CA.), where my father was stationed while he attended Russian Language School? Apparently, during the Cold War, the military wanted those with high security clearances to be able to understand Russian.

              For much of my childhood, he and his best friend had a private joke about it – where one or the other would say something that sounded like “Shishky, shishky shakunga” (and then laugh uproariously). I have asked several Russian speakers for a translation through the years, but no one has a clue. Any ideas?
              xx,
              mgh

              Liked by 1 person

            • At some point, both my son and I were offered teaching positions there. I declined and talked my son out of it as well. “Shishky” are pine cones, but the last word I can’t figure out.

              Liked by 1 person

            • Pine cones? Interesting. One more clue than I had – thanks. Now that my dad and his friend have both passed away, I suppose it will remain their secret code forever.

              I’m curious as to why you declined the Language School teaching position – and your argument that convinced your son to do so as well. Care to share?
              xx,
              mgh

              Liked by 1 person

            • Let’s say, I didn’t want to move to West Coast and didn’t want to have my son on the other side of the country. Boston is far enough for me. The rest in a private conversation, when we finally have face time.

              Liked by 1 person

            • Fair enough. Always wise to take care about what one posts on the internet.
              xx,
              mgh

              Liked by 1 person

            • 🙂

              Liked by 1 person

  14. This is such a great article Madelyn. Now mind you I didn’t inhale…. much and as for the brownies I only ate 1…. big one.

    BUT on a serious note this is a very important topic and one of which I have looked at closely over the many years working with addiction and my own youthful use. Like you said we must separate the two. As far as the medical side, to me the verdict is still out.

    As for the other side what you are saying as supported by cited studies it should not be legalized in my humble opinion. Now, I use to be a “NORML” pin toting believer but as I aged and noted its effects on those using we are going down a bad and dark road. We know we are living in a world where mental illness albeit anxiety and depression are markedly higher than they were in earlier eras and with adding marijuana to the equation we ain’t seen nothing yet. Yes, we can look at it as a “cash” crop but is and are future generations worth the cost? I do not think so!!!!

    Liked by 1 person

    • Thanks – I think this is an important topic, and one on which few people who ring in are actually informed (not talking about you here, btw).

      As I said in a reply to an earlier comment, I believe it is essential to distinguish recreational from medicinal usage of ALL substances.

      My connection with the chronic-pain and cancer communities, MANY of whom have found that marijuana helps considerably despite the psycho-active component, have led me to believe that we DO need to legalize medical marijuana, and that the restrictions on prescriptions need to fall more on the lenient side, lest those who could benefit most would be otherwise left to suffer needlessly.

      Will it be abused? Of course. But then, kids sniff glue, and we haven’t “black boxed” that and made it illegal. I believe that the focus on preventing addiction has resulted in a fear-based reaction where logical thinking seems to be absent. I’d be more on board with a return to prohibition if I were to apply most of the arguments against legalizing marijuana for medicinal use.

      The CBD research is especially relevant – since nobody gets high from it, and it seems to have dramatically positive effects on more than a few disorders and conditions.

      As someone who is disgusted by the ever-increasing march toward Corporate Capitalism, I reject the “cash crop” arguments entirely. I believe they are obfuscating the real issue – symptom relief. My thinking currently, in any case. Thanks for ringing in.
      xx,
      mgh

      Liked by 1 person

      • So much truth Madelyn. It is so sad how capitalism and greed taints everything from relationships to decisions as to what is right and what is wrong.

        Liked by 1 person

        • Sad indeed. The love of money is the root of all evil. Haven’t we heard that all our lives? Now it is blatant – both sides of it.
          xx, mgh

          Liked by 1 person

          • We are so glad to be breaking free of that train to nowhere. I guess it takes age to realize it’s not about the money. Maybe we have to get there and then we realize?

            Liked by 1 person

            • Possibly the latter – I think more than a few folks have been “down-sized” into that realization. But I believe many of the philanthropists get there by a different path. Fortunately, there are still a few of those around.
              xx,
              mgh

              Like

            • It sure is interesting though at how many paths we go down before coming to a point where we stop, look and listen and ask the question where is it I really want to be or go. It took me a lot of years to get off the tread mill. Did you ever read the book “Hope for the flowers” by Trina Paulis? It spoke so deeply to me.

              Liked by 1 person

            • Nope, don’t know it – but it’s now on an ever lengthening list. I LOVE to read, but spend so much time reading brain-based books and online studies these days, chasing the science anymore, that I truly miss time to wander among other genres.

              Once upon a time we were expected to make a choice in our early 20s and stick by it until it was time for a gold watch and a retirement party. Only a few did well in that system, IMHO.

              We can thank down-sizing for popularizing the “reinventing oneself” trend (what used to be called job-hopping and considered a big no-no). Things have changed (for the better, I believe), and many more folks are asking the “what do I really want” question several times in their lives as they continue to change and grow.

              I’m wondering what *I* truly want to do next myself – and where I want to be when I do it.

              ADD/EFDers were front-runners, however, and probably always will be. Not so much because they were and are brave souls but because they couldn’t – and can’t – stand to be bored! 🙂
              xx,
              mgh

              Liked by 1 person

            • We know what you mean about the list growing. I look back and ALL I read were brain based facts and figures. Now for every one F&F I balance it with something fun that stretches the imagination. Isn’t it funny how times have changed… from gold watch and retirement pkg and party to plastic casio watch, where is my retirement pkg and which phone booth do I hold the party in… oh that’s right there are no longer phone booths. You are probably to young to remember but they are the little box on the street corner with a phone hooked to a long twisted cable that yelled at you to put another quarter in, lol. We believe you are right where you are suppose to be Madelyn and still growing/going. He’ll let you know when to change directions as He did with me. It is a hoot when He does cuz its an oh wow moment. You and so many others are examples of good work ethics, character, integrity, etc. So don’t doubt it for a minute. You’ll never get bored or be boring!

              Liked by 1 person

            • Thanks so much for your kind thoughts and encouragement. I’m still fascinated by the topic, but my life has lacked balance for a while now – way too much going out, little coming in beyond helping satisfaction, and hardly any time to play or socialize. That’s a sign of sorts – so maybe He is trying to let me know to find a new field?

              Dunno’ but I AM considering it. One can’t pay bills and have much of a life if the positive changes occur in someone else’s life while little changes in your own. You’ve been in the helping field, so I know you can understand the drain, even when you are thrilled to be helping and have much to offer still.

              Now, phone booths – those things that Superman changed in, right? Yeah, I remember those – and actually miss them – lol. In their day there were no cell phones and people actually looked each other in the eye when you spoke to them. Now, even my older friends, seem to be tethered to the darned things – tweets & game notification noises syncopate every interaction. How important can a request to play another round of Words with Friends BE? 🙂
              xx,
              mgh

              Liked by 1 person

            • We hear you and can so relate. The hustle and bustle of life can slowly rob one of all balance. I remember years ago when it took me to a dark place where I faced depression in the eyes and it almost won. As you know our line of work can drain one if not connected. That is when I made some significant changes in life. Its been a process ever since and am so very sensitive to its symptoms in others and vowed to help those at the edge. It is so interesting though when I finally decided to venture into a new chapter of life how truly aware I instantly became as to the world I was involved in. Near broke out in sweats when I started realizing the close encounters of another kind I was thrust into. That’s why I suggest to people that you’ll know when the time is right and for me I haven’t looked back since. Now we help for the sake of helping. So I take it you tried changing in one of those phone booths huh, lol. Isn’t it something how tethered the world has become to the gadgets that years ago we didn’t have and survived, lol.

              Liked by 1 person

            • Sorry to hear of your battle with depression and glad it didn’t win. I’ve been there – and I believe most helping professionals can say they’ve at least teetered on the edge.

              Never changed in a phone booth – but the ideal certainly appeals now. I’d also love to return to the days when I could *always* find my phone and it never ran out of juice as long as I kept the bills paid. 🙂

              I only got my first cell because I traveled solo, and it seemed stupid not to have one for that purpose. There was a time when I maintained 3 landlines (fax, clients & home – when the inet was new). Now my cell is my ONLY phone.
              xx,
              mgh

              Liked by 1 person

            • Yes, depression is real but in keeping with all things work together for good it brought me to a front row seat of an awareness that others often aren’t privy too. Looking back I wouldn’t trade it for anything… dividends were to great. We find it funny to see different companies offering the “free” landline phone yet they never use them. Ahhh the ole fax machine… isn’t it something how times have changed.

              Liked by 1 person

  15. -Eugenia says:

    Very useful information. I agree with one of the other comments in that I pot is great if used for medicinal purposes, however, not great if used for just a lark.

    Liked by 1 person

    • Thanks, Eugenia. As with prohibition, as long as pot is illegal it will remain enticing to the kids. As with booze, recreational users will always be plentiful in any case. Unlike alcohol abuse, very few smokers get rowdy or aggressive, however, and the addiction statistics seem lower (or different, anyway).

      But our politicians have never been great understanding or maintaining the distinction between medicinal and recreational usage of any substance – just ask the chronic pain community.
      xx,
      mgh

      Liked by 1 person

      • -Eugenia says:

        You make a good point about pot or any drug for that matter. If it is illegal, it seems to be desirable.

        Liked by 1 person

        • Sadly, it does seem to be the case. Not even counting what happens when mobsters figure into the picture. Oops, sorry, meant to write “big businesses.”
          xx,
          mgh

          Liked by 1 person

          • -Eugenia says:

            😃

            Liked by 1 person

  16. Debbie says:

    hi Madelyn – I have known people who have had cancer symptoms alleviated substantially, and begin a process of wellness, from using quality CBD. (when i say quality, i mean made from plants grown in very organic conditions). They say that some people are actually cured – I havent studied that enough to know the facts on that one, but I have witnessed people’s symptoms being eased greatly.
    unfortunately as usual, whenever any natural based substance seems to work, big pharma wants to step in patent, claim, and prevent ordinary people from using nature’s abundance.
    informative article.

    Liked by 1 person

    • Thanks, Debbie. Actually, the hemp community led the charge to make marijuana illegal here in America, according to what I’ve read. And now the addiction lobbyists seem the biggest obstacle to legalization.

      My generation had the numbers and the interest in legalizing marijuana, but too few showed up at the polls – just like our most recent election, btw.

      I can’t understand anyone who doesn’t use the hard won right to vote, given the consequences.
      xx,
      mgh

      Liked by 1 person

      • Debbie says:

        Yes Madelyn. Voting is compulsory in Australia and I think it should be. Forces people to be a little bit civic minded. Having said that, most Aussies vote against the incumbent party, rather than for another party. It’s a knee jerk reaction. Never ceases to amaze me that people dont seem to understand they might actually get the government that they vote for!

        Liked by 1 person

        • Millions of Americans apparently failed to consider the meaning of “change” when they voted strongly in favor of it – and *very* few took the time to fact check. Millions more couldn’t be bothered to show up and vote, a large percentage registered Democrats positive that what DID happen couldn’t possibly.

          So now we are ALL stuck with “alternative facts” from a supposed leader whose behavior is an embarrassment to the country – with little we can do but complain and protest after the fact.

          And still far too many refuse to “get involved.” Shameful behavior, IMHO – especially given what’s going on right now.

          I’m curious – what happens to Australians who don’t vote?
          xx,
          mgh

          Like

          • lwbut says:

            Theoretically – we get fined $20. Last election (July) we had a record number of non-voters – 1.4 million or around 10-12%. Agree with some of what Debbie said, but i’m becomming more of the opinion that forced voting is not the answer. You can force people to vote by fines but you don’t make them take an interest or believe their vote counts by mandating voting. Case in point – i have a stronger civic mind than most here but i have not had my vote count in more than 30 years as i live in a ‘safe’ seat for the right wing Liberal party (current govt – by margin of just ONE!). My vote and those of many hundreds of thousands like me has never counted as far as our federal government is concerned by reason of which electorate we live in – that is somewhat depressing. I believe we need a more representative form of government and voting.

            love

            Liked by 1 person

            • America’s version of the ‘safe’ seat is a combination of gerrymandering (evil politicians rigging the voting district lines to favor one party over another) and the Electoral College.

              No matter HOW we vote as a populace – as in the last election – the EC votes are “district based” – and ALL of their votes (set by population count) go to the specified candidate unless they choose to over-ride (which, shamefully, didn’t happen last November).

              I believe we, too, need a more representative form of government and voting. If *anything* good comes from this past election, it would be getting rid of the EC.
              xx,
              mgh

              Liked by 1 person

            • lwbut says:

              I looked into your EC system after the disastrous result and can only agree with you. The fact that some states can elect a member with as little as 200,000 votes while others like texas and Cal need 700,000 to elect a single member seems wrong (Here in Aus each electorate can have it’s boundaries redrawn to ensure they all have roughly similar sized numbers of voting public for a single rep or senator). During your election we here often saw maps showing red and blue states as being the ‘traditional’ way each state voted. I’m sure the people who prefer to vote for the minority party in those states don’t feel like their vote counts when it is given to the majority side and that must be a HUGE disincentive for Americans to vote.

              Would you say one particular party has a monopoly on gerrymander?

              love.

              Liked by 1 person

            • The winner of the gerrymander race? The party in power currently, of course.

              And our votes *don’t* count when they’re thrown over to the EC as a block and handed to the majority party — no “feel like” about it. In some states, by individual vote count ignoring the district gerrymandering, the “majority” party didn’t even win!!!!

              And the current child in charge did NOT win the popular vote – I keep repeating that so that everyone outside our borders will understand that we’re not *all* idiots here in America. (Only our politicians, judging by their current behavior, and a large majority of those with little education – or single issue voters, ignoring ALL else, like a great many of the religious right who are anti-choice.)

              The Electoral College crappola may well be a voting disincentive, but if *everyone* would vote, the numbers would be greater and we’d stand a better chance of getting rid of the Albatross.

              But I don’t believe that is why so many Americans failed to vote in this last election (largest ever, btw). I think they believed that there was NO way Hillary would lose, and they didn’t want to vote FOR her — not realizing that they would have been casting a vote AGAINST him (and one that was, obviously, dearly needed).

              And NOW look what we’re stuck with. Scary times.
              xx,
              mgh

              Like

            • lwbut says:

              If it’s any consolation, i don’t believe ALL Americans are idiots!

              But you do have more than your fair share if twitter facebook is any indication! 😉 🙂

              I was horrified to read that even if a majority of voters in a region wanted a party to win the particular college was not obliged to follow the will of the people?? How did that ever get approved?

              love.

              Liked by 1 person

            • Thanks. Yeah – the idiots are over-represented on Twitter (but then, look at fearful leader’s tweets and it’s no wonder!) Same on Facebook, IMHO. Why I don’t participate on either. The American bloggers (long form) are the ones who know how to read and write – and DO.

              Re: EC — It was set in place back in the day – when far fewer Americans were educated and politicians believed we needed so-called “cooler heads” to shape the future of country on the issues and not merely the popularity of stump speeches. They had no IDEA of how it would end up being so misused in the Party wars to come! The conservatives and the uber-rich love it, of course, I believe because they know they’d have a tougher time if America were *really* the democracy it claims to be.

              It needs to GO!
              xx, mgh

              Liked by 1 person

            • lwbut says:

              Ahhhh – makes sense – sorta 😉 Kind of like the original reason for giving politicians a decent salary was so ‘ordinary’ people could stand some sort of chance to compete in parliament against the wealthy ruling classes – and hasn’t that worked out well (Animal Farm anyone – helloo-oo)?

              I think thee are many reasons people do not vote but an increasing one (thanks in part to ideas from/prevelance of social media) is distrust in what pollies say vs what they actually DO. (ie TRUST)

              I should probably shut up on this post now ? 🙂

              love.

            • Nah – far be it from ME to silence anyone in the mood to chat. No pressure, of course, but if you are in the mood to ramble, you are MORE than welcome to do so on any of my posts – related or not. lol 🙂

              Re: an erosion of trust? Did anybody *ever* trust the buggers?
              xx,
              mgh

              Liked by 1 person

            • lwbut says:

              Thank you, Madelyn!

              Good point! I think however, the trend is moving further downward and applies more generally than it used to (both in terms of widening range of particular pollies and of the numbers of the public – or at least those who’s opinion i get to hear about). 🙂

              love.

              Liked by 1 person

            • WELL, if it isn’t already, our newly appointed Sec. of Education DeVoss will make SURE that it will be.

              grrrrrr – A LOUSY precedent has been set: cabinet positions can now be purchased for campaign funds (as long as donations have at least six zeros following a number larger than 1 by a few), even by those who have ZERO qualifications for the post, even less awareness of the field or the laws in place, and don’t even bother to cram for their own confirmation hearing.

              I went out and got drunk for the first time in years the night she was confirmed. Could. Not. Believe. It.
              xx,
              mgh

              Liked by 1 person

            • lwbut says:

              We both know getting drunk was unlikely to make anything better, but we also both know it was probably the most appropriate action at that moment! 😉

              Again, although little good could come from it, i felt compelled to point out to the universe that it was in all likelihood a decidedly bad choice to put in someone with absolutely no prior experience of holding a government position into arguably the most powerful one in the world.

              The Lousy President precedent has been set and unsurprisingly he is the one now perpetuating it. The USA could now rightly be said to no longer be a democracy, but a Plutocracy. Although it is my belief that that was really the case for most of the post-civil war period, politicians largely being puppets of the rich and powerful that we get to vote for. Whoo-pee!

              love.

              Liked by 1 person

            • DUH! I couldn’t *believe* that his lack of *any* prior experience was not only ignored, but touted as a GOOD thing by so many who voted for him. As if!

              The march of Corporate Capitalism is relentless – and the heyday of the robber barons seems to be back and stronger than ever. (singing another chorus of “I’m glad I’m not young anymore”)

              And yeah – dumb idea to drown my sorrows. I rarely drink at all, so tossing back three quick ones was a lousy idea – and I paid the price the next day.

              At the time I wanted nothing so much as cognitive oblivion – posted my intentions at the bottom of the article I was working on at the time, hit “send” and headed out the door with my pooch. The bar is on the same block as my apt. and same side of the street, so my return trip was not a danger to self or others, and I knew it would not be. And at least Tink got to spend a bit of time with his fans at his Cheers bar.
              xx,
              mgh

              Liked by 1 person

            • lwbut says:

              I never said it was a dumb idea! 😉 and I’m glad TT got a reward from it, but as for being drunk not being dangerous? Hmmmm…. I’d think twice about walking US streets sober, let alone drunk, never mind driving!

              Take good care of yourself Madelyn!

              love.

              Liked by 1 person

            • I’m only a few buildings down from Tink’s bar, so walking, not driving – didn’t even have to cross the street (where there is a private dorm with groups of college students always out and about ’til every place in town has closed – and bracketed by an all-nite, brightly lit laundromat, so relatively safe area at night).

              PLUS I left before the last drink had time to hit my system, so I wasn’t exactly bobbing and weaving. 🙂

              I DID fall asleep practically as soon as I crawled into my jammies and my head hit the pillow, and I did feel it the next day, however. As I said, I rarely drink anymore – so I’m a real light weight.

              There was a time during my own wanton college days where I could drink almost anybody under the table, but those days are looooooong gone. I’m fairly cautious about most things anymore.

              On that particular night I’d simply witnessed too-too much to stand when I heard DeVoss was confirmed and the smug, ignorant endorsement from the Veep, who cast the tie-breaking vote.

              But thanks for your concern.
              xx,
              mgh

              Like

            • lwbut says:

              Ahhhhh for the Good Old Long Gone Days! 😉

              My Pleasure!

              love.

              Liked by 1 person

            • It’s a wonder most of us lived to tell it. 🙂
              xx, mgh

              Liked by 1 person

            • lwbut says:

              Apologies for hi-jacking the blog direction btw!

              Liked by 1 person

            • We go by ADD-rules here. There IS no “direction” – lol.
              xx,
              mgh

              Like

            • lwbut says:

              Yes Boss! 😉

              love.

              Liked by 1 person

  17. Bernadette says:

    This is an important article especially as marijuana become increasingly more legal.

    Liked by 1 person

    • Thanks, Bernadette. I think the distinction is key to allowing medicinal usage – but legislators will always have agendas we won’t find out about until much later, so I’m not sure facts ever really land with them.
      xx,
      mgh

      Liked by 2 people

  18. Reblogged this on Hell onWheels/Life One Handed and commented:
    Useful information who claim smoking pot is good for their ABI……….

    Liked by 1 person

    • Thanks, Helen. As we inch toward legalization, information becomes more important. Thanks for helping me spread some. MANY ABI/TBI users have said that smoking pot is helpful – along with those battling cancer, and even more in the chronic pain community. I hope people will click some of the links to find out more.
      xx,
      mgh

      Like

  19. I know those with an ABI who are big pot-heads. I’ve never tried it and have no interest however my favourite housemate was a daily user. He was very relaxed but then he was a roadie……

    Liked by 1 person

    • My ex-husband was almost always stoned (which I realized only after I married him) – so I saw the downside up close and personal. Interesting “state memory” study or two – info learned stoned is best retrieved in that state.

      I believe that most folks who came of age in the late 60’s early 70’s here in America have at least tried it, despite what many claim. I didn’t know *anyone* who didn’t partake at parties, where it was always passed around – and I moved in quite a few circles. Musicians (and roadies) almost always smoked back then and many still do.

      Odd to me how folks want to close doors as soon as they’ve passed through them. Happens pretty much across the board, I’ve observed.
      xx,
      mgh

      Liked by 1 person

  20. thanks for a super interesting post. I’m glad that we have medical marijuana, it can do a lot for people with chronic pains… but the misuse by teens and kids is a no-go… they often have no clue what bad things they do to themselves with smoking weed… :o(

    Liked by 2 people

    • Thanks for your comment. I’m a big supporter of medical marijuana as well – even the kind with THC for adults challenged with certain disorders (chronic pain & PTSD, for example.)

      But the human brain doesn’t finish developing until our 20s (or later), so it’s not a good idea to play around with psychotropics if you want normal brain development.

      Common sense – but try telling that to the kids. Studies may be more credible to them – maybe. In my day, drugs weren’t in the High School population yet – in the main. Different now, and a bigger problem we won’t see play out until those kids are aging – too late to do much then, unfortunately.
      xx, mgh

      Liked by 1 person

      • I hear you… they have role models who are more for them than any words of a doctor or their parents. And the worst is that the consuments become younger and younger ;o(

        Liked by 1 person

        • I worry about that too. But former generations worried about alcohol in a similar manner, I suppose – even in the age of bath-tub gin.
          xx, mgh

          Liked by 1 person

  21. cindy knoke says:

    Fascinating, well researched and compiled..

    Liked by 1 person

    • Thank you Cindy. There is so MUCH coming out now, I wanted to post something on the topic – and struggled to make it as brief as possible, so I’m happy to read that you found it well researched.
      xx,
      mgh

      Like

  22. Very informative Madelyn and yes addictions are so bad and especially all these drugs they make you mad and one does not know how to come out of its tangle but you have written and explained so well. Thanks.

    Liked by 1 person

    • Thanks you Kamal. I found it interesting when it came across my desk and I wanted to share. Thanks for letting me know I explained it well.
      xx,
      mgh

      Liked by 1 person

      • Welcome Madelyn and yes so important for youngsters to know what harm they do but you know it is with a great knowing from within that helps these people too.

        Liked by 1 person

        • Absolutely – studies convince many who might otherwise not believe it. I doubt anything will convince the kids, however.
          xx,
          mgh

          Liked by 1 person

          • Yes absolutely.

            Liked by 1 person

  23. Maria @ MariaHass.blog says:

    This was interesting! Thank you!

    Liked by 1 person

    • You are welcome – thanks for the visit (and for letting me know you were here).
      xx,
      mgh

      Like

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