Monday, March 6, 2017 130 Comments
Studies may lead to help for PTSD
as well as a greater understanding of addiction
© Madelyn Griffith-Haynie, CTP, CMC, ACT, MCC, SCAC
Foundational Concept of the Intentionality Series
Opinions vs. Facts
Weed, Ganja, MaryJane, Cannabis, Pot, Hemp, Herb, Reefer
Some of my Senior readers may not recognize each of them, but practically any teen can tell you that they are all names for marijuana.
You know, that stuff you can roll into a joint that – except in jest – only the most out-of-it refer to as “a funny cigarette.”
The technical term for marijuana is cannabis – for a very good reason. Since at least 1967, various chemical constituents of marijuana have been classified as cannabinoids.
They act on cannabinoid receptors in cells throughout our bodies, and alter neurotransmitter release in the brain – but they are NOT all the same.
One toke gets you higher and another makes you well?
THC [delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol or Delta-9-THC] is the primary psychoactive ingredient in marijuana – the stuff that gets you high – but it is not always the most abundant cannabinoid in marijuana.
Cannabidiol is currently one of the most exciting of the 85+ known cannabinoids.
Also known as CBD, it is stepping out of the shadows and into the spotlight as a potentially breakthrough nutritional component and treatment.
It occurs naturally in significant quantities in cannabis, and it is extracted relatively easily from the seeds, stalk and flowers of cannabis plants – which include hemp as well as marijuana. (The main functional difference between hemp and marijuana is the level of THC.)
Receptor Sites and Binding
All recent studies have indicated that the behavioral effects of THC are receptor mediated. That means that neurons in the brain are activated when a compound binds to its receptor — a protein typically located on the surface of a particular cell “specialized” to, metaphorically, “speak its language.”
So THC gets you high only after binding to its receptor. That, in turn, triggers a series of events in the cell that results in a change in the cell’s activity, its gene regulation, or the signals that it sends on to another cell.
Steven R. Laviolette and his team at Western University’s Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry discovered that directly activating cannabinoid receptors in a region of the brain called the amygdala, can strongly influence the significance of emotional information and memory processing.
Activating cannabinoid receptors also dramatically increased the activity patterns of neurons in a connected region of the brain called the prefrontal cortex [PFC].
That, in turn, controls how the brain perceives the emotional significance of sensory information, and the strength of the memories associated with these emotional experiences.
Regular readers may recall that the PFC has connections to, essentially, every other part of the brain.
It is the part of the cortex that allows us to regulate Executive Functions appropriately – items like planning, problem solving, concentration, mental flexibility, and controlling short-term behavior to achieve long-term goals.